Monthly Archives: January 2015

Makeup

Our union officers are trying to encourage more
professional and conscientious behavior among all
members. Some old-timers, myself included, have
been asked to add our viewpoints. I believe that
our craft would be much more respected if all
our members followed the practices which I will
outline, but I realize that individuals seldom
change much just for the sake of their group.
However, there is a chance that people will change
if they realize that they could make more money.
Actually, that is my main motive for doing these
things: I get more jobs and better pay. It does
not even take great talent. A make-up artist who
acts professionally will seem more competent than
a highly skilled man who goofs off. Acting
professionally means the following to me:
1. When you receive an assignment, get as
much information about it as possible so that you
will be properly prepared (Color or B&W? Num-
ber of performers? Type of commercial or show?
Type of make-up that will be appropriate? Time allowed for make-up? Any special make-up or
hair problems? and so forth).
2. Keep your kit and materials clean and neat,
and use sanitary procedures. A decent personal
appearance is also essential. Nothing makes a
worse impression on a performer than a slovenly
make-up artist with a dirty kit who tops it off
by offering to apply lipstick with a soiled brush
and a pot of rouge that has served a thousand
others. You might just as well spit on it! That
couldn’t make it worse. Dirty combs, sponges,
puffs, and other items are almost as unpleasant
to most performers, and the chances are that some
will insist on putting on their own make-up rather
than let you use yours. The rest will silently pray
they never see you again. My system for lipstick
is to scoop out a small portion from the lipstick
jar (or tube) with a clean spatula, and put it on
a disposable butter chip. I use a clean lipstick
brush for each person, and make it obvious that
I am picking up a clean one. If you want to save
the lipstick for later use, you can fold the butter
chip in two, and write the person’s name on it
with an eyebrow pencil. I carry plenty of clean
sponges, puffs, brushes, and towels. The rest is
just a matter of cleaning out my kit once in a
while when I am waiting around on set.
3. A kit should not only be clean but also
adequately stocked. Nowadays that means that
everyone should carry color make-up even if he
is not warned ahead of the assignment.
4. Reporting on time is obviously important.
It’s also a good practice to try to get your make-
up done in the scheduled time. If you find that
enough time hasn’t been allowed for the job, tell
the A.D. as soon as possible, and tell him how
long you will take so that he can adjust the work
plan whenever possible and explain to the director
and so forth.
5. I believe one should do all the make-up he
can. No make-up artist should sit around and
watch a performer apply any kind of make-up,
even hand-make-up, if the performer would per-
mit him to do it. Nor should he tell any performer, no matter how unimportant, that he
doesn’t need any make-up if he has nothing else
to do. Of course, this means more work, but
that’s what we are getting well paid to do. When
a job is simple or dull, it’s tempting to loaf, but
if you do an easy job poorly, why should anyone
believe that you could do a difficult job any bet-
ter? You have to treat all work seriously if you
want your work to be respected.
6. Handling performers with courtesy and un-
derstanding is obviously sensible. A happy actress
may give you good publicity and get you more
jobs. The opposite is also true. When your pa-
tience is at the breaking point, remember that a
performer’s face may literally be his or her for-
tune*. How he or she looks is tremendously im-
portant both on the emotional and financial levels.
7. It is most important to apply make-up in
a way that is suitable to the job. Find out as
much as you can before you start. Go on the set
and look at the background colors to see if they
would affect the make-up. If the director isn’t
present when you start, keep the make-up natural
until you are told otherwise. It is easier to add
than to remove.
8. When you finish everyone, tell the A.D.
so that he knows the performers are not being
kept in the make-up room, and you won’t get
the blame if they are late getting to the set. If
the crew isn’t ready to start, tell the A.D. where
to find you if you are going out for coffee, etc.
In fact, anytime during the day that you want
to leave the set, you must tell the A.D. or some
other appropriate person.
9. At the earliest opportunity, check with the
cameraman to see if the make-up is satisfactory
to him. In some cases you should check with the
director as well. It is particularly important if
you haven’t worked with these people before.
10. Putting the make-up on in the morning
is only half the job, and often, the easiest half.
Keeping it fresh throughout the day can be a lot
of work. What makes it harder is that it is very
tempting to take it easy and do as little retouch-
ing as you can get away with. But you are doing
yourself harm if you wait for the cameraman to
shout. Some of them are too occupied with other
things or not observant to notice the make-up
until it’s half off. You should be more critical of and more interested in your own work than any-
one else. It’s a good idea to do your retouching
before the camera is ready to roll and the A.D.
looks around and yells for make-up. You can
usually tell when the time is near for a take and
get your work done beforehand.-Then you won’t
be in the position of making everyone else wait
while you do a hasty, patch-job. Of course, there
are some things that have to be left till the last
minute, but keep them to a minimum. When
there is a long break between scenes, tell the
A.D. how many minutes you will need to get
the cast ready so that he can warn you when it
is time to do the retouching.
Retouching after lunch is important, and
should be planned with the A.D. before lunch.
Sometimes make-up should be done over instead
of retouched. If there will not be enough time,
explain the problem to the A.D. and perhaps,
he will give only a half-hour lunch to certain
performers and you. If he doesn’t, you can’t be
blamed for holding up shooting after lunch.
What I have outlined above seems obviously
business-like to me, and yet, I have found that
many artists feel and act otherwise. Many times
I have received warm praise for a simple job only
because the make-up men who had preceded me
had not observed these practices. They disap-
peared from the set, or they held up production,
or they didn’t get along with someone, or they
failed to keep the make-up fresh. A frequent
complaint of directors was that the artist did not
follow his instructions. If the director says he
wants only a touch of make-up, don’t try to prove
how great you are by using every trick you know.
The chorus-girl make-up you give him will only
make him wonder if you understand English.
That situation is just one example of not follow-
ing what is probably the most important rule:
Adapt the make-up to the particular require-
ments. As I said before, always get as much in-
formation as you can, do your make-up
accordingly, and the director will think you are
tops!
I hardly think much can be added to these astute
thoughts by Dick Smith. They completely express his
philosophy and show the need to understand the pages
in Part I of this book before attempting to do any
make-up procedures.

CHARACTER MAKE-UP MATERIALS

CHARACTER MAKE-UP MATERIALS
Many special materials that a make-up artist must have
to do various character make-ups see little or no use
for straight or ordinary corrective make-ups. These are
listed here in alphabetical order rather than in impor-
tance, and their use is briefly explained. More infor-
mation as to specific uses will be found in the chapters
on character make-up. It is not necessary to carry all
these items in the kit all the time, but in most cases,
a bit of each that the artist may find important should
be part of the everyday make-up kit.
We reiterate the statement that these are not or-
dinary materials and that some performers may have
allergies to some of the products or solvents. If this
occurs, discontinue their use on that particular
performer.
ACETONE A highly volatile liquid that is one of
the main solvents of adhesives, sealers, and pros-
thetic plastics. Also used for cleaning the lace
portion of hair goods after use.
ADHESIVE TAPE Some new varieties of this old
material are translucent and porous and have ex-
cellent adhesion. The 1-inch width is best.
ADHESIVES This describes a very wide category of
make-up materials and changes often as new items
are researched and discovered. The original ad-
hesive material for make-up was called spirit gum,
which was nothing more than a solution of rosin
in alcohol or other solvents (still made by many
theatrical supply companies). Although it had
fairly good adhesion, after a short while the dried
gum took on an unwanted shine and, in the pres-
ence of excess perspiration, lost much of its ad-
hesiveness and cracked off the skin. Today,
although rosin is still one of the ingredients of
most hair goods adhesives of that type, other
materials have been added and combined in the
manufacture to make an adhesive that not only
has better stick but also does not have unwanted
shine and, in some cases, stands up to the ravages
of perspiration.
To disguise the lace portion of a hairpiece or
beard, a firm bond must be made to the skin,
and in most cases, old spirit gum darkened when
any foundation make-up was placed on the lace
or even close to it. A strong line of demarcation
often occurred, necessitating removing the piece,
cleaning it thoroughly, and re-adhering it. When
the foundation to be applied was to be deeper
than the color of the subject’s skin, this presented
a constant problem of maintenance. However,
some of the new plastic adhesives have solved this
problem (See “PMA Matte Lace Adhesive”).
One way to take some of the shine out of spirit
gum is to add some clay material (such as Kaolin
or Attapulgus Clay) into it and stir thoroughly
until the powder is well suspended in the gum.
Although this will provide a gum with little shine,
under some conditions it will whiten (or gray,
depending on the shade of the clay) and therefore
show—particularly on lace hair goods.
Matte, or nonshining spirit gum, was origi-
nally made by adding a very fine silica material
to it and mechanically mixing the powder in.
This produced a thicker gum and provided less
shine but was not as flat as clay in matting.
RCMA researched all these gums and matting
materials and provides a series of matte adhesives
for various uses and conditions.
RCMA MATTE ADHESIVE This material was intro-
duced in 1965 and is made by combining mi-
crosilica materials of various micron sizes with
the resin mix under high shear. In this way, the
smaller-sized silica particles hold the larger ones
(the latter provide better matting) in solution and, at the same time, adds considerably more
adhesion to the final mix due to the molecular
structure of the finished material. RCMA Matte
Adhesive can be employed both as an adhesive
for hair goods or lace to the skin as well as a skin
sealer with residual tack.
rcma MATTE adhesive #16 A superstick adhesive for
hair goods that contains additional solids plus a
plastic material to aid adhesion even when a sub-
ject perspires more than usual.
rcma matte plasticized adhesive An adhesive de-
signed for use with latex appliances that provides
more all-ways stretch capability and the tackiness
required for holding slush cast or foamed appli-
ances to the skin.
rcma special adhesive #1 Specifically designed to
adhere any lace goods or hair to plastic bald caps.
Normally, the bald plastic cap or front is attached
to the subject with RCMA Matte Plasticized Ad-
hesive or one of RCMA’s Prosthetic Adhesives
and then the hair goods are attached. Special
Adhesive # 1 is a very fast-drying heavily matted
adhesive/sealer that will form a film that incor-
porates itself into the plastic bald cap while ad-
hering the hair or lace to it. The product must
be thoroughly shaken before use and applied over
the lace as the hairpiece is held in place. Foun-
dation make-up may be applied directly over
RCMA Special Adhesive #1 without darkening
the surface of the lace (also see pages 213—215).
rcma special adhesive #2 A neoprene-based ad-
hesive for attaching velcro or other items to ap-
pliances.
RCMA PROSTHETIC ADHESIVES These are adhesives
from the medical profession that have found var-
ious uses by make-up artists.
Prosthetic Adhesive A This is a solvent-based,
clear, quick-setting contact adhesive that has
a very low irritation factor to the skin. It is
less affected by perspiration and water than
other adhesives, so it can be used for scenes in
the rain or water. Diluted with Prosthetic Ad-
hesive A Thinner, it can be sprayed on body
surfaces to attach large appliances or hair goods
(also see pages 256 and 257).
Prosthetic Adhesive B This is a water-based, milky
white (but dries clear) acrylic emulsion adhe-
sive that sets less rapidly than Prosthetic Ad-
hesive A and also has a low irritant factor
because it does not contain any strong solvents.
Although the dried film is insoluble in water,
the liquid can be diluted with a few drops of
a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water.
A word of caution: Take great care in testing
or using some of the new superadhesives made
for industrial use as they are extremely difficult to remove from the human skin without serious
damage.
Ben Nye, Stein’s, and some of the other the-
atrical make-up manufacturers produce various
adhesives of the spirit gum style but do not fur-
nish any matte type of sealers or adhesives. They
also have stage bloods, nose and scar waxes, and
so on for character stage work. Also see Appendix
A for full listing of these and other items of a
similar nature.
Adhesive Remover RCMA makes a cleanser that will
dissolve and remove from the skin any type of
plastic sealer, adhesive, scar material, or such
made for make-up use, leaving the skin soft and
lubricated. It is not for use in cleaning adhesives
from lace goods or in cleansing the face before
applying hair goods as it contains a moisturizing
agent that prevents proper adhesion. A new variety
of remover in a cream form, called ADKLEN, is
made by RCMA for cleansing adhesives from the
skin. If it is applied to the edge of appliances and
worked under them with a brush, it will loosen
and then cleanse the adhesive from the skin in a
very gentle manner.
Alcohol Ordinary drug store rubbing alcohol is only
a 70 percent type and is not a suitable solvent
for make-up use. A 99 percent isopropyl alcohol
should be stocked because many adhesives and
sealers have a mixture of 60 percent acetone and
40 percent isopropyl alcohol as solvents. Alcohol
is also a good sterilizing agent to clean tools and
table tops.
Artificial Bloods The search for realistic-appearing
human blood has led to many products from cas-
ein paints to food-colored syrups. RCMA makes
the following types:
COLOR PROCESS TYPE A A water-washable material
that is very realistic in appearance and flow. It
is nontoxic and does not cake and dry but appears
fresh looking for some time.
COLOR PROCESS TYPE B A resin plastic formulation
designed for use where a blood effect must remain
in place and not run during a long scene. It is
solvent based and sets quickly, remaining shiny
and fresh flowing in appearance. It is removed
with RCMA Adhesive Remover.
COLOR PROCESS TYPE c A soft creme variety serviced
in a tube to make bloody areas for an effect where
the blood does not have to run.
COLOR PROCESS TYPE D A rapid-drying liquid sus-
pension of a brownish tone employed to simulate
dried blood on bandages. Not for any fresh blood
effect or skin use.
Artificial Tears and Perspiration A clear liquid that
can be used to simulate tears when placed in the corner of the eye. It can also be stippled or sprayed
on the skin to simulate perspiration.
Beard-setting Spray A solvent-based artificial latex
material that is used to set pre-made laid hair
beards on forms. Not for facial use as a spray (also
see pages 198-200, 252-253).
Gelatin Capsules These capsules are obtainable in
various sizes from most drug stores. They can be
filled with RCMA Color Process Type A Blood
and then crushed with the fingers or in the mouth
for blood flow effects. Don’t prefill these for fu-
ture use because the artificial bloods will soften
them too much.
Hair Whiteners RCMA makes four shades of cream-
style hair whiteners: HW-1, Grayed White; HW-
2, Pinked White; HW-3, Ochre White; and
HW-4, Yellow White. In addition, there is a
Superwhite that can be used for highlighting.
These are for small areas of whitening only, and
full head graying or whitening should be done
with sprays of liquid for this use. Nestle-LaMaur
Company makes the following shades of liquid
sprays in cans: White, Beige, Silver, and Gray.
It also makes other hair colors such as Brown,
Black, Blonde, Auburn, Light Brown, and Gold
as well as Pink and Green for special effects. Very
realistic hair changes can be done with these sprays
(see page 258).
Latex There are many grades of latices for specific
uses:
PURE GUM LATEX An unfillered pure gum rubber
that air dries to a tough elastic coating. It is not
suitable for casting but is excellent for making
inflatable bladders (see pages 187 and 191).
CASTING LATEX A latex compound employed for
slush or paint-in appliance making. Can be tinted
to any shade with colors (see page 187). Casting
Filler can be added to this product to control
buildup density and stiffness of the finished item.
FOAM LATEX A three- or four-part combination of
materials used to produce foamed latex appli-
ances, the actual latex portion being a heavy gum
mixture.
EYELASH ADHESIVE A special latex form that has
excellent adhesive qualities for attaching strip and
individual lashes as well as for an edge stipple for
latex appliances (see pages 65 and 66).
RCMA OLD AGE STIPPLE A compound containing la-
tex made specifically for wrinkling the skin. Not
just any latex material will act in the same man-
ner. RCMA Old Age Stipple is made in four
regular shades: KW-2, KW-4, KM-2, and KN-
5, and special colors are available on order (see Artist) materials are made by RCMA for profes-
sional use and encompass some interesting new
special materials. PMA Molding Material is a
paint-in type of plastic for making small or flat
appliances. It dries rapidly and builds up well.
It is supplied in three shades: Light (KW), Deep
(KM), and Dark (KN) colors, as well as clear (also
see pages 204-205).
Plastic Cap Material The lightly tinted variety is
used for making plastic bald caps and fronts. It
is also available in Clear for coating plastalene
sculpture (see pages 173, 203—204).
PMA Press Molding Material A clear, heavy liquid
employed to make press molded appliances (see
pages 205-207). Also comes in shades.
Appliance Foundations RCMA makes a series of
prosthetic bases or AF foundations for use with
latex appliances in three dilutions of the basic
earth colors, plus a Caucasoid skin series and two
color stages of bright colors (see page 272).
Scar Material A slightly matte scar-making material
with a tinge of pink color that dries on application
to form very realistic incised scars. Can be re-
moved with RCMA Adhesive Remover (see pages
235-236) or ADKLEN.
Scar- or Blister-Making Material A molding plastic
type that can be formed into scar tissue or dropped
on the skin to simulate second degree burns or
other blister effects (see pages 234—236). Serviced
in a tube for easy application.
Sealers One of the first sealers used by make-up art-
ists was flexible collodion that was gun-cotton
dissolved in ether with castor oil as a plasticizer.
Employing build-ups on the face with successive
layers of spirit gum, cotton batting, and a cover
of collodion was the method employed by Jack
Pierce to do the first Frankenstein Monster on
Boris Karloff. This was a laborious method and
did not guarantee a fully controllable surface or
buildup. Most theatrical make-up books em-
ployed this procedure for many years, and un-
fortunately, some actors still thought it was the
only way to change features (see story on Lon
Chaney’s Frankenstein Monster on pages 142—
143). The resultant film over the cotton did not
have much flexibility and hardened as the day
went on. The surface could also be easily marred
if pressed.
Next came the vinyl plastics, one of which was
called Sealskin, a medical sealer made from a poly-
vinyl butyral that was too slow in drying. A
similar type, but faster drying, was George Bau’s
Sealer #225. Unfortunately, both these sealers
(and many of this type on the market) dry with
a glossy, objectionably shiny surface, and foun-
dation make-up slides off it easily.

The RCMA sealers combined various varieties
of polyvinyls and added matting materials to pro-
duce sealers that had not only good adhesion and
no shine but also sufficient tooth to hold make-
up foundations better.
RCMA MATTE PLASTIC SEALER Can be employed both
as a surface sealer for wax buildups or as an ad-
hesive for lifts (see pages 110 and 232). It can
also be used in conjunction with other materials
to cover eyebrows and seal latex pieces and wher-
ever a film former is required.
PMA MATTE LACE ADHESIVE A sealer/adhesive that is
very fast drying and suitable for use with hair-
pieces, blocking brows, and so forth (see page
255).
Toupee Tape A number of varieties are available but
a product called Secure is a colorless, two-sided,
very sticky tape that is excellent for holding down
toupee tops (see page 255).
Waxes
DENTAL WAXES (See page 234.)
Black Carding Wax Useful for blocking out teeth
for a toothless effect,
Red For simulating gum tissue,
Ivory A hard wax that can be used to form tem-
porary teeth.
MOLDING WAXES Although some grades of morti-
cian’s wax may see some make-up use, old nose
putty is seldom used today. A new type of micro-
synthetic-wax material is made by RCMA and
comes in various shades and is less affected by
body warmth than the mortician variety (see page
232).
RCMA PMA PLASTIC WAX MATERIAL
Light Pale shade White
Women KW-3 color
Men KT-3 color
Negro KN-5 color
No-Color A clear wax that can be tinted with
RCMA Color Process founda-
tions.
Violet Matches RCMA Color Process Violet
and is used to make raised bruises.

Special Tools

Special Tools
Certain medical and dental tools have found use by
make-up artists (Figure 5.3):
College Pliers Six-inch, stainless steel, curved tip
dental pliers (large tweezers) are best for handling
false lashes, small prostheses, and other items.
Dental Spatulas The stainless steel, 2!/2-inch blade
spatula is excellent for mixing colors, stirring
liquids (like stipples), taking a bit of make-up
out of a container to be placed on a plastic tray
or disposable butter chip for individual portions
of lipcolor, and so on.
A variety of scissors are useful:
Hair Scissors Get the best available, keep them sharp,
and cut only hair with them. The 3-inch barber’s
style is most useful.
Straight Scissors A good pair with short blades for
cutting all other materials such as plastics, fabric,
and so forth is best.
Curved Scissors Surgical, stainless steel with a 1 Vi-
inch blade length are best for cutting curves on
latex or plastic appliances.
Pinking Shears A small pair of these for trimming
lace on prepared hair goods should be part of a
make-up artist’s hair kit.
Comb An aluminum tail-comb with widespread, un-
serrated teeth for hair work.
Eyecare items would include tweezers. A good pair
of slant-cut tweezers for brow care is important. Many
complicated Varieties of plucking tweezers are made as
well.
Although some female performers like to curl their
lashes, it is not a good practice to carry or offer an
eyelash curler for general use. Not only are the rubber
or plastic pads on their curlers hard to clean and ster-
ilize, but also new research has shown that some in-
dividuals are allergic to the plating on the finish of
some of the curlers when they are pressed on the eye
area. Also, if the pads inadvertently slip or fall off,
one can clip off all the lashes at the roots. This, of
course, is not a pleasant prospect, but it has happened.

Brushes

Brushes
Brushes are made from many hair materials such as
red sable (from the tails of the Kolinsky or Red Tartar
marten); black sable (wood marten or stone marten);
ox hair (from the ears of oxen); camel hair (from squir-
rels, ponies, or goats—not camels!); fitch hair (Russian
fitch or skunks); badger hair (from Turkish or Russian
badgers); goat hair (back and whisker hair); and many
varieties of artificial hair made from plastic filaments.
The best type for make-up brushes for most uses are
those made from the best of the red sable hairs because
they have better spring and workability (Figure 5.2).
Bristle brushes are different from hair in that hair
has a single, individual natural point, while bristle
has multiple natural tips or flags and also has a taper.
This taper gives natural bristle brushes (such as those
used for eyelash or eyebrow brushes) certain working
qualities over any of the plastic bristle brushes. Bristle
comes from hogs or boars, and the best comes from
the back strip of older animals. Good real bristle brushes
are difficult to find in today’s plastic world.
Proper construction of a make-up brush from red
sable hair for professional use is also important. The
length-of-the-hair out of the ferrule (LOOF) must be
combined by the best ferrule metal, and the hairs must
be secured tightly in the ferrule. Handle length is also
important so that brushes can be easily stored in a
make-up kit. Although steel, copper, and aluminum
are often used for making ferrules, seamless, nickle-
plated brass is best because the hairs can be perma-
nently heat sealed in a material known as Nylox, which
is quite insoluble in solvents such as acetone, alcohol,
and so forth. As such, the hairs stand up to repeated
cleanings in RCMA Studio Brush Cleaner without fall-
ing out.
The length of the hair out of the ferrule controls
the flexibility, snap, and painting quality of the brush
that has been dipped in a material for use. Those for
oil-wax products should be of shorter hair length, while
those for spreading water-based products should be
somewhat longer. A slight fraction of an inch too much out of the ferrule will make a lip brush too pliant or
an eyecolor brush too stiff for best application.
Brushes designed for the fine arts where artists paint
with heavy oils or with watercolors are not good for
applying the waxy cremes or heavily concentrated wet
or dry colors of make-up materials. A brush that is
about 7 inches overall is best for make-up use and fit
in the kit, and a walnut-finished handle adds to the
professional look of the brush.
Both round and flat brush styles are used, and the
following chart provides the brush sizes employed by
many make-up people. Incidentally, the higher the
number, the larger the brush size in number of hairs
employed in its manufacture.
Artificial plastic bristle brushes (for brows and lashes)
work almost as well as natural bristle brushes, but there
is also a trend toward making application brushes from
less expensive filaments. One is called Golden Fibrilon,
and it has been found to be almost as efficient as the red
sable type. There are also some foamed sponge tip appli-
cators for eye products, but these are for personal use
only and cannot be cleaned or sterilized for make-up
artist service.
It is also well to avoid the large IV2- to 2-inch wide,
long-handled soft camel hair brushes that are mer-
chandized for dusting on blush or powder products.
First, they are difficult to clean between uses, and
next, a smaller brush for blush and a puff for powder
are far better for control. Many pseudo-make-up per-
sonnel appear to be making fancy incantations and
performing miracles with the flying camel hair dusters,
but the overall effect in the end is minimal—often
matching their talent.

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Only commercial cosmetic companies and amateurs
advocate the application of any make-up product with
the fingers for a beauty make-up. The professional
make-up artist always employs the correct tools such
as brushes, sponges, puffs, tweezers, Q-Tips, and so
forth for applying make-up. Many application tools
have changed over the years and, with advancing tech-
nology, will continue to do so.
Sponges
Foamed sponges are the mainstay of foundation ap-
plication. However, it has come to the attention of
dermatologists and skin specialists that certain pseudo-
cosmetic reactions may cause skin irritations that are
similar to an allergenic cosmetic reaction but not due
to the cosmetics themselves. One of these is the use
of foamed rubber or latex sponges for applying make-
up. It has been discovered that a chemical employed
in the manufacture of the foam, mercaptobenzothiozole,
may produce a dermatitis effect on human skin. By
using noprubber sponges (such as polyurethane types),
this condition or its possibility is completely avoided
or alleviated. It is strongly recommended that only
fine-foamed polyurethane sponges be employed for
professional work and a new sponge be used on each
person to ensure cleanliness and sterility.
There are also stippling sponges in both red rubber
and foamed plastic with a variety of pores-per-inch
styles that are utilized for applying various character
effects. They should be cut into small pieces for facility
in use.
Puffs
Three-inch, cotton-filled, velour powder puffs are best
for applying powder. Note: Avoid using the so-called
powder brushes as they are not only difficult to clean
and sterilizev but also may streak the facial make-up.